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What is Sustainable Development Goals

According to UN, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been published for action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. UNDP provides clear guidelines and targets for all countries to adopt in accordance with their own priorities and the environmental challenges of the world at large.

Adopted by world leaders in September 2015 officially came into force. On 1 January 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs, also known as Global Goals, aims to go further to end all forms of poverty which build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and

Without data, we can’t monitor and measure the process. People are talking about data-driven decision making, as Bill Gates said: “Data represent a lot of hard work in countries around the world and we need to zoom in the stories behind the data.”


Working on SDGs is not only the government responsibility, but everyone, including enterprises and public, should pay attention to it. For the sack of human, environment and the earth, we should achieve SDGs together, hand in hand, to build a better world.


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SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

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This goal is to revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. A successful sustainable development agenda needs partnerships between governments, the private sector and civil society. Principles and values, a shared vision, and shared goals that place people and the planet at the centre, are needed at the global, regional, national and local level were built upon partnerships.

To mobilize, redirect and unlock the transformative power of trillions of dollars of private resources to deliver on sustainable development objectives, we need urgent action. Long-term investments, including foreign direct investment, are needed in critical sectors, especially in developing countries.

Sustainable energy, infrastructure and transport, as well as information and communications technologies are needed. The public sector will need to set a clear direction. Review and monitoring frameworks, regulations and incentive structures that enable such investments must be retooled to attract investments and reinforce sustainable development. National oversight mechanisms such as supreme audit institutions and oversight functions by legislatures should be strengthened.

Here are some of the details of SDG 17 Partnerships for the Goals according to the United Nations.

By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism

Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
Capacity building

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG 17 Partnerships for the Goals


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SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

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This goal is to promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies. Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals is dedicated for sustainable development, the provision of access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels to the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies.

Here are the details of SDG16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions according to the United Nations.

Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

By 2030, provide a legal identity for all, including birth registration

Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime

Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions


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SDG 15: Life on Land

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This goal is for Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss. Nowadays, forests cover 30percentt of the Earth’s surface and in addition to providing food security and shelter, forests are key to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and the homes of the indigenous population. While the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares, there are thirteen million hectares of forests being lost every year.

Deforestation and desertification caused by human activities and climate change to pose major challenges to sustainable development and have affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the fight against poverty. Efforts are being made to manage forests and combat desertification.

Here are the details of SDG15 Life on Land according to the United Nations.

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG15 Life on Land


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SDG 14: Life Below Water

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This goal is about to conserve and sustainably which include the oceans, seas and marine resources. The world’s oceans mean their temperature, chemistry, currents and life driving global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind.

Rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea. Throughout history, oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation. Therefore, management of this important global resource is a major feature of a sustainable future.

Here are the details of SDG 14 Life Below Water according to the United Nations.

By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation

By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want.

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG 14 Life Below Water



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SDG 13: Climate Action

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Every country on every continent is affected by climate change. It is disrupting national economies and affecting lives, costing people, communities and countries dearly today and even more tomorrow.

Without action, the world’s average surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and is likely to surpass 3 degrees Celsius this century—with some areas of the world expected to warm even more. The significant impacts of climate change include changing weather patterns, rising sea level, and more extreme weather events. The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are driving climate change and continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history.

Affordable, scalable solutions are now available to enable countries to leapfrog to cleaner, more resilient economies. But climate change does not respect national borders. It requires solutions that need to be coordinated at the international level and it requires international cooperation to help developing countries move toward a low-carbon economy.

Here are the details of SDG13 Climate Action according to the United Nations.

Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in the least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities.

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG13 Climate Action

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SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

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This goal is to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Sustainable consumption and production mean promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs and a better quality of life for all to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty.

In order to “doing more and better with less,” increasing net welfare gains from economic activities by reducing resource use, degradation and pollution along the whole lifecycle, while increasing quality of life. It involves different stakeholders, including business, consumers, policymakers, researchers, scientists, retailers, media, and development cooperation agencies, among others.

A systemic approach and cooperation among actors operating in the supply chain are also required, from producer to final consumer. Engaging consumers through awareness-raising and education on sustainable consumption and lifestyles, providing consumers with adequate information through standards and labels and engaging in sustainable public procurement, among others are involved.

Here are the details of SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production according to the United Nations.

Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production

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SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

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This goal is to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Cities are not only full of ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more but enabled people to advance socially and economically.

However,  To maintaining cities in a way that continues to create jobs and prosperity while not straining land and resources, many challenges existed. Congestion, lack of funds to provide basic services, a shortage of adequate housing and declining infrastructure are common urban challenges.

To continue to thrive and grow while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty, the challenges cities face can be overcome in ways. The future we want includes cities of opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and more.

Here are the details of SDG11 Sustainable Cities and Communities according to the United Nations.

By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG11 Sustainable Cities and Communities



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SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities

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This goal is the international community which has made significant strides towards lifting people out of poverty. The most vulnerable nations, the least developed countries, the landlocked developing countries and the small island developing states which continue to make inroads into poverty reduction. However, inequality still persists and large disparities remain in access to health and education services and other assets.

There is growing consensus that economic growth is not sufficient to reduce poverty if it is not inclusive and if it does not involve the three dimensions of sustainable development including economic, social and environmental, additionally, while income inequality between countries may have been reduced, inequality within countries has risen.

Policies should be universal in principle paying attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations to reduce inequality,

Here are the details of SDG10 Reduced Inequalities according to the United Nations.

By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or another status

Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular, least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular, least developed countries,

African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

By 2030, reduce to less than 3 percent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 percent

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG10 Reduced Inequalities


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SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

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This goal is to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. Investments in infrastructure mean transport, irrigation, energy and information and communication technology which are crucial to achieving sustainable development and empowering communities in many countries. It has long been recognized that growth in productivity and incomes, and improvements in health and education outcomes require investment in infrastructure.

Inclusive and sustainable industrial development includes a primary source of income generation, allows for rapid and sustained increases in living standards for all people, and provides the technological solutions to environmentally sound industrialization.

Technological progress is the foundation of efforts to achieve environmental objectives, such as increased resource and energy-efficiency. We need technology and innovation, to let industrialization happen, and we need industrialization to develop.

Here are the details of SDG9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure according to the United Nations.

Basic infrastructure like roads, information and communication technologies, sanitation, electrical power and water remains scarce in many developing countries

About 2.6 billion people in the developing world are facing difficulties in accessing electricity full time

2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic sanitation and almost 800 million people lack access to water, many hundreds of millions of them in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia

1-1.5 billion people do not have access to reliable phone services
Quality infrastructure is positively related to the achievement of social, economic and political goals

Inadequate infrastructure leads to a lack of access to markets, jobs, information and training, creating a major barrier to doing business

Undeveloped infrastructures limits access to health care and education

For many African countries, particularly the lower-income countries, the existent constraints regarding infrastructure affect firm productivity by around 40 per cent

Manufacturing is an important employer, accounting for around 470 million jobs worldwide in 2009 – or around 16 per cent of the world’s workforce of 2.9 billion. In 2013, it is estimated that there were more than half a billion jobs in manufacturing

Industrialization’s job multiplication effect has a positive impact on society. Every one job in manufacturing creates 2.2 jobs in other sectors

Small and medium-sized enterprises that engage in industrial processing and manufacturing are the most critical for the early stages of industrialization and are typically the largest job creators. They makeup over 90 percent of business worldwide and account for between 50-60 percent of employment

In countries where data are available, the number of people employed in renewable energy sectors is presently around 2.3 million. Given the present gaps in information, this is no doubt a very conservative figure. Because of strong rising interest in energy alternatives, the possible total employment for renewables by 2030 is 20 million jobs

Least developed countries have immense potential for industrialization in food and beverages (agro-industry), and textiles and garments, with good prospects for sustained employment generation and higher productivity

Middle-income countries can benefit from entering the basic and fabricated metals industries, which offer a range of products facing rapidly growing international demand

In developing countries, barely 30 percent of agricultural production undergoes industrial processing. In high-income countries, 98 percent is processed. This suggests that there are great opportunities for developing countries in agribusiness

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Sample data sets in Hong Kong: SDG9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure